How to choose a TV. Part 1: recall the main features of the device

How to choose a TV. Part 1: recall the main features of the device


    Choose a nice TV – occupation responsible. After all, this device will help pass the time in the cool evenings. It is a TV show as your favorite football team wins another victory. That he will tell about all the events that are happening in the world. Therefore, the choice of TV for the house must be approached in a responsible manner.

    In the first part of the article I will discuss the main characteristics of modern TVs. We’ll talk about the technology of creating matrices permits marketing “trick” the manufacturer, Smart-device capabilities and much, much more. Therefore, I suggest not to get distracted and, as they say, start with the bat.

    Как выбрать телевизор. Часть 1: изучаем основные параметры устойств
    The main parameter – the diagonal

    The main parameter of the TV, which turns its attention buyer – is diagonal. Not the type of matrix without permission, not having 3D and Smart TV, but the screen size. Of course, this option can be equated to the cost, however, in practice, these values ​​are very closely related, because the larger diagonal – the more expensive TV.

    Вот с такого расстояния, пожалуй, лучше не смотреть телевизор
    This is from such a distance, perhaps it is better not to watch TV

    There is a common myth that large TV displays need to look at a very respectable distance. A good distance – is harmful to the eye. This “theory” is so deeply rooted in the masses, that when dealing with manufacturers of TVs I constantly have to listen to lament the fact that people are afraid to buy large panels.

    SONY considers large parameter equal to or above 45 inches. And Samsung – 50 inches.

    In fact, the choice of TV and calculating the distance from which you look at it, you must first start not from the diagonal device and on its resolution and quality of the reproduced content. On this subject there are numerous studies.

    However, I suggest to drop all the speculation and fears and to build on the recommendations – authoritative “player” in the film industry and television. The company founded by George Lucas, recommended distance from the TV to the following distances:

    Diagonal of TV

    Optimal viewing distance for 720p video

    Optimal viewing distance for 1080p video


    2.92 m

    1.98 m


    3.23 m

    2.18 m


    3.51 m

    2.39 m


    3.81 m

    2.57 m

    Let me just note that at a certain recommends setting the display is the distance to the person viewing, as said, not running around in the screen.

    By the way, clicking on this hyperlink will take you to an online calculator. So that with its help you can calculate yourself, equipped with a suitable diagonal, for example, to your living room.

    Зависимость диагонали телевизора и качества контента от расстояния.
    The dependence of the diagonal of the TV and the quality of content on the distance.

    Note: 1 foot (feet) equal to 0.3048 meters or 12 inches; 3.3 ft – 1 m.

    It is obvious that, the sharper the image, the smaller the length you need for comfortable viewing images on a TV.

    Here is a plaque with the popular resolutions. It takes place on the full size.

    Современные разрешения экранов
    Modern resolution screens

    Production technology of matrix

    The types of matrices are perhaps the biggest base for all kinds of holivarov. What’s better: LCD or plasma? What to choose: VA or IPS? Of course, each technology has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, but in most cases it is necessary to start from a specific image quality on the TV. That is why there is a golden rule: before buying the device must always see yourself and check.

    To date, three are considered to be relevant production technology matrices. While one of them is already possible to say goodbye. The fact that many manufacturers of plasma panels are gradually beginning to abandon their production.

    Has long since gone the distance Pioneer. Since last year, the plasma does not produce Panasonic: “Until recently, due to the excellent picture quality Panasonic plasma panels are highly appreciated and enjoyed strong demand across the globe.

    However, due to the fast and rapid changes in the business environment and the decline in demand for plasma flat screens on the market, it became clear that it would be difficult to continue the business, and it was decided to cease production “- so says the official statement of the Japanese company.

    This year, to waive the production of plasma televisions announced and LG. The company is now fully focus on the issue of IPS and OLED. So now we can safely say that the best LCD plasma. At least in terms of production and sale of goods.

    It turns out that among the major players in producing plasma was only Samsung.

    Главное в телевизоре — это качество изображения. А какая там используется матрица для обычного пользователя — дело второстепенное
    The main thing on TV – it’s the quality of the image. And what is it uses a matrix for the average user – a secondary matter

    Strictly speaking, LCD (aka LCD, liquid crystals) was, is, and will most likely be the next few years, the most common and chassis technology for the production of televisions. I see no reason to talk in detail about the working principle of this technology.

    It has existed for a long time and many well-known. Let me just note that the principle of imaging is based on the propagation of polarized light from the backlight.

    To date, there are three popular types of LCD matrices:

    • IPS. Explanation abbreviations simultaneously explains the technology and principle of operation: In-Plane Switching, that is, the liquid crystal molecules are arranged parallel to the plane of the screen. In turn, the IPS is of several types – AS-IPS, H-IPS, AH-IPS, E-IPS, P-IPS and S-IPS. Therefore, the data matrix can be used as a very cheap televisions, and in turn expensive. The image quality is, not surprisingly, is very noticeably different. Good IPS-display has, decent color reproduction, high brightness and wide viewing angles. The disadvantage is a large response time, as well as a high level of black.
    • VA (MVA, PVA, S-PVA). fNnTehnologiya stands for vertical alignment – vertical alignment. Is a compromise between TN and IPS. When this has a lower black level and high static contrast.
    • UV²A. Is a rare technology, which is engaged in the promotion of company Sharp. The matrix has greater than for example in VA, viewing angles, and has a very deep black level.

    Recently, LCD matrix evolved by applying different types of illuminations. Nowadays they can be divided into two types: CCFL and LED. The first variation of illumination (cold cathode) is present in older LCD-TVs.

    The image generated by fluorescent lamps arranged in a matrix. Thus, a uniformly illuminated picture, but CCFL-TVs are thicker, as well as a high level of energy consumption. LED-backlight includes light-emitting diodes. It is energy efficient and more compact. Therefore, the more commercially profitable. In addition, it allows you to locally manage backlit matrix. It is not surprising that there are several LED-technology:

    Boundary value lights. It is also called EDGE-LED. In this illumination, as you may guess, the diodes are located at the edges. Emitted from the light falls on them, and the diffuser is scattered over the entire surface of the screen.

    The main disadvantage of edge lighting – high black level. The fact that the liquid crystals themselves do not emit light, so it is always necessary illumination. However, they miss him constantly.
    Carpet lights.

    Sometimes different versions: Direct LED, LED Pro, FHD LED. The LEDs are located directly behind the matrix. In this way is possible to achieve uniformity of the backlight. In addition, many modern televisions are equipped with control modules, allows to highlight specific parts of the display.

    On the basis of carpet backlight technology appeared qualitatively reducing the black level.


    OLED technology is the youngest, and, therefore, innovation. However, like any other young design, it has a number of “sores” that prevent the rapid spread of devices among ordinary users. OLED stands for organic light-emitting diode – OLEDs.

    Image formed by the self-illuminating diodes under the influence of an electric current. Therefore, OLED-TVs do not need a backlight (maximum brightness, meanwhile, can reach in parameter 100 000 cd / m 2). The technology allows you to create a very thin matrix with gorgeous color settings, brightness, contrast and black level.

    OLED may operate in harsh industrial environments, e.g., at temperatures ranging from -40 to +70 degrees Celsius. Finally, the matrix has an almost complete absence of inertia.

    But there is a noticeable flaws. First – a very high cost of production. However, every year OLED considerably cheaper. For example, last year the model LG 55EA980V cost $11500. Now the updated version of the TV called 55EC9300 worth about $ 7200.

    It is expected that next year will be available OLED is less than $ 2800. Still expensive, but not fabulously.


    In no case should not be equated with such concepts as “LED-TV” and “TV with LED-backlit.” The first – a type of matrix, which in addition there is no backlight; second – this type of backlight LCD-display. Unfortunately, even a very large chain stores consumer electronics confuse these concepts.

    The second significant disadvantage OLED – short service life of the matrix, as well as different levels of degradation pixels. For example, red and green diodes boast longlasting in the amount of 50-70 thousand hours of continuous operation, but blue – a total of 30 thousand hours.

    Such unevenness can cause picture distortion. While that is 30,000 hours of continuous operation? It’s almost 3.5 years. If we consider that the average TV is only 8 hours a day, it turns 10 years of stable work. A lot or a little – decide, dear readers.

    I do not accidentally put the plasma into third place. The reasons have been described above. Leading manufacturers one by one abandon production of these displays. However, the plasma can still be found on sale, and at various flea markets this product will be present for a long time.

    Image from Plasma is formed due to luminescence under the action of ultraviolet rays. Each cell is independent of the plasma light source. That is why this type of matrix does not require backlight. It is therefore very often OLED is compared to plasma, but not with the liquid crystal.

    Originally plasma were bulky and consume a lot of electricity. Now, however, the sale is a very energy-efficient models with plate thickness not exceeding those measured at TVs with LED-backlit.

    plasma Pluses are obvious – this is the depth of the image, high dynamic resolution, low response time matrix and low black level. The disadvantages include the burning plasma cells and image retention. The first problem was sorted out manufacturers. At home, it is impossible to make cell burnt.

    For this it is necessary to leave the contrast image for several days. In addition, at the right time at the TV work protection system. But the second is a real problem. Enough for a few hours to leave a static image, and after this time on a black background will be his silhouette.

    However, again a couple of hours, a residual image will come to naught. It is because of this plasma is not recommended for use as the system output images to a personal computer.

    Очень большая плазменная панель
    Very large plasma

    The following table shows the advantages and disadvantages of various types of matrices. However, it is quite conventional. For example, have a very modern LCD nedurstvenno angles. Yes, and the black level in a well calibrated TV does not cause censures.





    Cheapness of production

    Slow matrix, large RTT

    High brightness

    Low dynamic resolution

    Works well with static picture

    The black level is higher than the competition


    High Contrast

    While the very high cost of production

    Fast matrix, a low response time

    Degradation of pixels

    Wide viewing angles

    Small lifetime

    Brilliant color

    The ability to create very thin TVs


    Depth Images

    Image retention

    High dynamic resolution

    Poor show a static image

    Low level black

    High power consumption

    Fast matrix, a low response time

    High cost of production

    Wide viewing angles

    Failure of the leading manufacturers of plasma TV production

    So, with matrices sorted out. Now propose to meet with key, in my opinion, the characteristics of TV:

    • Brightness. Here additional language superfluous.
    • Contrast. The difference between the average of the white and black areas. When this black region is taken as unity. There is such a thing as ANSI-contrast. This is when the measurement is made using a checkerboard alternating then white, then black areas. For example, the IPS this parameter is somewhere 1000: 1, y S-PVA – 3500: 1, a plasma – 12000: 1.
    • Black Level. Display black screen with a signal 0 nits. Simply put, absolutely black – is zero brightness.
    • Viewing angles. Here, too, everything is clear. The more, the better. Thus, modern matrices have viewing angles in both planes at a rate of 178 degrees.
    • Color gamut. This area with specific colors that can reproduce the display. The smaller, the worse. There are a number of standards, which define the “aptitude” of the matrix. For example, our test lab for testing laptops and monitors use sRGB. For testing we use standard TV HDTV REC709. There is also such a thing as color accuracy. This deviation between the signal, which is fed to the input and a signal which is obtained at the output. It is denoted as DeltaE. Well calibrated TV should respond parameter DeltaE lt; 3 However, the human eye is not able to determine the deviation in this range. The ideal color reproduction – is zero. That is, what the input, then got to the exit.

    Цветовой охват телевизора TOSHIBA 42L7453RB
    Color Gamut of TV TOSHIBA 42L7453RB

    There are a lot of subjective image characteristics TVs. Some of these are discussed later.

    (Not) Marketing

    Every company seeks to independently develop certain technologies that are capable of (in their view) to improve the image quality of their products. Large corporations with production facilities can afford to invest millions (if not billions) in the development of new types of matrices.

    For example, LG recently undertook thorough OLED. However, other firms, which have to be purchased on the display side, trying to get out, “Yes, the two TVs the same matrix, but our model supports” T “, which makes the image much better.” Marketing? Do not know until you do not personally checked out.

    As an example, take the latest product development SONY. In the line of 4K-TV Japanese manufacturer using technologies such as TRILUMINOs Display, X-Tended Dynamic Range and 4K X-Reality PRO.

    TRILUMINOs Display technology allows you to display the nuances of shades of red, green and blue, to get the true color on the screen. Roughly speaking, it is the software method increases the color gamut. First audit technologies generated too unnatural, synthetic colors. Now TRILUMINOs Display fared much better.

    Technology X-tended Dynamic Range (carpet LED Backlight) enhances the contrast of bright light and deep black areas of the image in one frame, which ensures a more detailed gradations of color transitions and wide dynamic range of brightness.

    Here it is necessary to add that almost all TV manufacturers are trying to use modes and technologies that increase the brightness of the picture. It is in these modes operate TVs on stands in stores. As practice shows, among several models inexperienced user chooses in the end the brightest. Never mind that the house will not use the TV in this mode.

    4K X-Reality PRO – is a hardware “feature”. In fact, under this technology is necessary to understand the presence of an additional co-processor, as well as algorithms that improve image quality. This is primarily useful for making the most of “pull” content is lower quality than 4K.

    And these technologies each company abound. Therefore, before buying a TV is not too lazy to study them on the official website of the manufacturer, as well as equipment reviews.

    Very interesting manufacturers measure the frequency matrix in hertz. Here take the TV TOSHIBA 42L7453RB, which I tested recently . According to its specifications, it has a matrix with a frame refresh rate 1500 Hz (1500 Hz! 1.5 kHz!).

    However, the next is specified that it AMR-characteristic. The abbreviation stands for Active Motion Resolution. Obviously, 42L7453RB can not display 1500 frames per second. Even more popular matrix capable of delivering a maximum of 200 Hz.

    Therefore, the manufacturer boasts the very real marketing frequencies. In this case, a 1500 Hz means a combination of the speed of the TV, which includes options such as calculation of intermediate frames, type of lighting, and all kinds of optimizing technology.

    Specifically, in this giant 42L7453RB parameter is formed by using the scanning backlight. All this is done solely for dynamic scenes on the screen is not so strongly eroded.

    Other vendors also boast marketing frequencies. For example, Samsung uses the concept of CMR (Clear Motion Rate), Philips – PMR (Perfect Motion Rate), SONY – MXR (Motion XR), and LG – MCI (Motion Clarity Index). As you can see, in the fight for the wallets of customers all means are good.


    TV TOSHIBA 42L7453RB with a refresh rate of 1500Hz

    Design and technical features of TV

    Of course, each user is a report card of parameters, which evaluates the quality of the device. And certainly not the last number of items such as design, ergonomics and functionality.

    As for the design, it seems that all manufacturers conspired. So, everyone wants to release a TV with a slim bezel, narrow body and a tiny stand (so-called minimalist day). The result is that a lot of TV are alike as two drops of water.

    Depending on the line of TVs equipped with a different number of ports. If the device supports Smart, and is equipped with built-in player, it is important that the housing was wired ports USB, it is desirable to version 3.0.

    As a rule, all models are equipped with modern video inputs HDMI version 1.4. However, if we are talking about 4K-TV, you most certainly need to take the TV with HDMI 2.0. This standard supports the transmission of 4K-content of 60 Hz. HDMI 1.4 can boast of similar quality broadcast content, but only at 30 Hz.

    Flagship TVs LG, Samsung, Panasonic and SONY, usually completed with two consoles. For example, Magic Remote works for example a laser pointer and is designed to quickly run WebOS. Very similar manipulator used for their TVs and Samsung. But SONY has developed a “lazy” One Flick, which placed the touchpad.

    Exhibition IFA 2014 showed that, in addition to 4K-resolution, all manufacturers want to release the curved model. This stylish and powerful trend. Not so long ago we had a rapid testing SONY TV series S9.

    It should be noted that there is some kind of standard. Each manufacturer oppression displays as he pleases. For example, from the Japanese SONY prefer “soft” bending. Engineers turned to research Kyushu University. Dr. Takeda in 2009 found that the distance from which a person usually watches TV, minimal distortion is achieved when the radius of the curve from 5000 mm to 11000 mm.

    3D support has already become commonplace. The use of technology boom has passed, and the manufacturers themselves have ceased to focus attention on it. Now equipped with 3D-glasses model even with the cost ranging from $ 285.

    As always, the market there as representatives of the passive and active technology. Plus many devices have learned to convert 2D to 3D.


    Support for 3D

    Possibilities of Smart TV

    Many TVs (even entry-level models) equipped with a platform Smart TV. As you can guess, it’s firmware, which can significantly increase the functionality of a TV panel. Again, each defines for himself if he wants a “smart” TV or not.

    Firmware from industry leaders have different design, different ergonomics, different management approach, however, in principle, they all work on the same principle that allows you to run applications (basically we are talking about online movie theaters and other entertainment services) and provide access the Internet without using a computer.

    Trend this year – the integration of all kinds of TVs in the social services: Facebook, twitter, Skype and others.

    Also exist for TV applications for mobile phones and tablets, turning these same gadgets, such as the optional remote control.

    Firmware for SONY TV is called the Sony Entertainment Network (SEN) and works with applications that are easy to download and easy to shop online. There are a large number of multimedia software.

    For example, the application of TV channels “Home”, STS, “Down”, “Pepper.” There are programs for popular social networks: Facebook, Instagram.

    Philips TVs also come with enough functionality to the browser. However, in September were presented TVs that support a complete operating system Android. Devices that do not support any problems input devices (including game pads).

    Unfortunately, I have not had the opportunity to test a new shell detail. However, very soon we will come to a TV. Consequently, we exhaustively test its new functionality.

    As you know, at the beginning of 2013, in February, LG has acquired the rights to the HP operating system WebOS. Finally, LG has released a new soft shell Smart TV based on it. In addition to the minimalist design, the operating system has received very serious trump card – support multitasking.

    So, you can pause the video being played simultaneously run YouTube and browser. And thus easy to switch between these processes. Indeed, the OS works very quickly. A built-in player differs enviable omnivorous.

    Firmware Samsung in terms of functionality is not inferior to WebOS from LG. Smart Hub interface consists of three desktops: Samsung Apps, “Movies and Series” and “Multimedia”. Located on the first applications such as Facebook and many others. Smart Hub supports unpretentious game. In the “Serials” are located online cinemas. “Multimedia” – a visual wrapper for the built-in player.


    Smart functions in Samsung TVs

    Interface for Panasonic TV is called VIERA Connect. The manufacturer is absolutely not shy calls it “the first personalized TV.” And all because almost all the parameters VIERA Connect are set for themselves.

    The main menu – “My Home Page” – contains all the fun, including applications for firmware. In terms of functionality, it looks very comfortable and successful. In terms of filling applications VIERA Connect also did not disappoint.


    Smart functions in Panasonic TVs

    Against the background of Samsung, LG and Panasonic CloudTV interface for TV TOSHIBA does not look so attractive. Lame functionality and low (on the background of the interfaces from other manufacturers) the number of applications. However, the most annoying very slow work for the insertion.

    Due to the fact that the content 4K-quality today is not too much you should pay for the support of relevant services, with which you can view the corresponding product. These include Netflix, Astra, Amazon instant video, maxdome and

    Instead of a conclusion

    So, here we remember the basic features of modern TVs. Of course, not told about all the features and capabilities of the new panel, however, hope that this will be enough to ensure that subsequently came to the store, make the right choice.

    In fact, in the next part of the article we will look at several new TV models, designed to be placed in the living room.

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